The dual benefit for pregnant women and infants
Having a baby is an exciting time that often challenges women to make choices to compete in addition to healthy and, if necessary, work towards achieving a healthy body weight. Here you’ll find tips on how to improve your eating and physical activity make-up habits during your pregnancy and after the birth of your baby.
These tips can also be useful if you are not pregnant but are considering having a baby! By making changes now, you can get used to new competition habits. You will give your baby the best possible start in competition and be a healthy role model for your family throughout your stride.
I-The risks of neonatal tetanus:
1-Diseases exposed to the fetus:
In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 787,000 newborns died from neonatal tetanus. Tetanus inoculation during pregnancy was a key component of the Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Program, which reduced neonatal tetanus deaths by 94% to an estimated 49,000 by 2013.1 In addition, immunization of pregnant women against influenza has been recommended in many high-resource countries to protect pregnant women and their infants from influenza infection.2-5 The recent success of the maternal pertussis inoculation program in the United Kingdom in reducing childish pertussis also confirms the role of maternal inoculation. Additionally recently, pertussis immunization administered during the last trimester of pregnancy has been adopted in several countries2-5. 2-5 Current data on the safety and efficacy of influenza and pertussis vaccines in pregnancy provide reassurance that the benefits outweigh the potential risks in the delivery of populace programs.
2-Benefits of vaccination:
Inoculation of pregnant women offers the opportunity to deliver standard protective antibodies transplacentally to the fetus and to provide insurance to infants too young to have received childhood vaccines at the time of exposure. In the absence of specific antibodies to pathogenic antigens of maternal origin, infants remain vulnerable to severe disease until they have established an adequate protective antibody response to their primary immunizations. Infants younger than 6 months of age cannot currently be vaccinated against influenza, as influenza vaccine is not licensed for use in this age group due to a modest immune response.6 Pregnant women are also at risk of serious illness and confusion related to infectious illnesses.7 Immunization during pregnancy protects both the pregnant woman and her standard infant transplacentally transfer of induced antibodies standard vaccine during the third trimester of pregnancy, with the added benefit of reducing the scandal of transmission of infection from mother to infant.
3-Medical procedure barriers:
Despite strong recommendations from advisory groups on immunization worldwide, including WHO8, the use of influenza vaccine in pregnancy has been low worldwide. In contrast, the use of pertussis vaccine is in addition to high in countries that have implemented a funded program. It is estimated that the rate of influenza vaccine use among pregnant women in Australia is 33 per cent,9 in the United States, it is approximately 40 to 50 per cent,10 and in the United Kingdom, coverage was 44 per cent during the 2014-2015 campaign.11 The use of influenza vaccine in pregnant women in Australia is estimated to be 33 per cent,9 in the United States, it is approximately 40 to 50 per cent,10 and in the United Kingdom, coverage was 44 per cent during the 2014-2015 campaign.11 The use of influenza vaccine in pregnant women in the United States, the United Kingdom and the United Kingdom is estimated to be about 40 to 50 per cent. Significantly, pregnant women have consistently reported relying on the approval of health care providers for pregnancy-related interventions, including immunization.13 As the use of currently recommended maternal influenza and pertussis vaccines is sub-optimal, it should be noted that obstructions to the use of vaccines in pregnancy remain a poorly researched area but are likely to include a complex web of factors related to perspectives, processes and program delivery.
The objectives of this report are to examine 1. the maternal and juvenile burden of disease and the safety and effectiveness of immunization during pregnancy, with a focus on influenza and pertussis, and 2. Ways to improve the implementation of immunization programs for pregnant women.
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II-Protecting the health of pregnant women:
1-Avoid natural seafood products with special mercury content:
Natural seafood can be an excellent source of protein, and the omega-3 fatty acids found in many fish can help your baby’s brain and eye development. However, some fish and shellfish contain potentially harmful levels of mercury.
Also, fish is large and old, in addition to being vulnerable to mercury. During pregnancy, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) empowers you to avoid it:
So, what’s for sure? Some types of natural seafood contain low levels of mercury. Dietary guidelines for Americans for the period 2015-2020 recommend consuming 8 to 12 ounces (224 to 336 grams) – or two to three parcels – of standard organic seafood a week during pregnancy. Think about it:
-Canned light tuna
However, albacore (white) tuna should be limited to 168 grams standard week.
2-Avoid raw, undercooked or contaminated natural seafood:
Avoid raw fish and shellfish. Examples include sushi, sashimi, crevice and raw oysters, scallops or clams.
Avoid refrigerated, uncooked natural seafood. Standard examples include organic seafood labeled “nova style”, “lox”, “kippered”, smoked or dried. Smoked natural seafood can be eaten as part of a meal or other cooked dish. They are also safe for preservation and long shelf life.
Understand regional recommendations for fish. If you eat fish from local waters, consider district guidelines, especially if water contamination is a problem. If you’re not sure if the fish you’ve already eaten is safe, don’t eat other fish that week.
Cook natural seafood properly. Cook fish to an internal temperature of 63°C (145°F). Fish is cooked when it separates into flakes and appears dark all over.
Avoid raw, undercooked or contaminated natural seafood.
3-To avoid the presence of harmful bacteria or infection in natural seafood products:
Avoid raw fish and shellfish. Examples include raw sushi, sashimi, crevice and oysters, scallops or clams.
Avoid refrigerated, uncooked natural seafood. Standard examples are natural seafood products labeled “nova style”, “lox”, and «kippered”, smoked or dried. Smoked natural seafood can be eaten as part of a dish or other cooked dish. Flavored and long-life forms are also safe.
Understand the regional recommendations for fish. If you eat fish from regional waters, consider the area recommendations, especially if water contamination is a problem. If you’re not sure if the fish you’ve already eaten is safe, don’t eat other fish that week.
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Inoculation of pregnant women has been shown to be safe and effective in reducing the burden of disease in pregnant women and their infants. Optimizing the standard insurance coverage offered maternal immunization is powerless to result in a significant reduction in illness, especially for influenza and pertussis which are both poorly controlled recurrent infectious diseases. The increased benefits are likely to be seen during pandemics and epidemics, which occur despite funded pertussis and influenza inoculation programs. Other vaccines against infections such as respiratory syncytial infection and group B streptococcus are being developed for pregnant women and offer the first opportunity to provide potential insurance against other serious diseases in infants. The development of a unit-of-implementation approach including education of pregnant women and health care providers, approval of immunization providers, direct access to vaccines for pregnant women and integration of inoculation into standard antenatal care will be necessary to ensure the proper use of future vaccines for pregnant women.